Spinoza’s Ontology and the Meaning of Happiness

Rocco A. Astore

New School for Social Research in New York, NY. Email:

  Volume 8, Number 1, 2018 I Full Text PDF

DOI: 10.25274/bcjms.v8n1.v8n1sc01


This piece will first investigate Spinoza’s speculations concerning God or Nature. Next, explicating his ideas regarding the human mind and body will assist the reader in understanding his views on the human condition, and the influences that distort people’s abilities to love God fully. Finally, I will argue that love of God, is also a love of one’s self, and therefore, people may claim that God’s love is not mandatory for their happiness.


Keywords: Spinoza, meaning of happiness, ontology, God

Human-Animal Dialectic in Giorgio Agamben

P. Prayer Elmo Raj, Karunya University, Coimabtore, India

Download PDF Version


The human-animal discretion marks a noteworthy dialectic in Agamben’s philosophical corpus that connotes the conception of human’s interconnection with the animal other has established anthropological features as inherently encountering the systemic networks of power that underlies the social echelons. The incomprehensible biblical image of the righteous symbolized with animal heads after the Day of Judgement creates a plinth for Agamben to survey the manifold means in which the anthropological machine of Western intellect impact the privileging of the human over the animal. Homo Sapiens as an anthropo-sociological category is an apparatus that identifies the centrality of human beings involving a mobility that furnishes the human-human dialectic configuring the third form of life, a bare life that dismantle the machine but the neither human nor nature are allowed to subjugate the other but represent a dialectical harmony, a “dialectic at a standstill” from a Benjaminian point of view that distances the non-happenstance.