Dinnaga’s View on the Role of Anyapoha (Exclusion of Others) in Understanding Word-meaning

Alok Ranjan Khatua

A Research Scholar, Ph. D. Programme, Vidyasagar University, and an Assistant Professor, Dept. of Philosophy, Mugberia Gangadhar Mahavidyalaya, Bhupatinagar, Puarba-Medinipur, Pin: 721425, West Bengal, India. Email: alokkhatua13@gmail.com

 Volume VII, Number 2, 2017 I Full Text PDF

DOI: 10.25274/bcjms.v7n2.v7n2sc03


The present paper deals with the Buddhist theory of meaning which is known as Apohavāda, it was first propounded by Diṅnāga. Diṅnāga, the great Indian logician and the father of Buddhist nominalism, in his celebrated work Pramāṇcamuccaya mentioned the apoha theory which asserts that universal is not real, it has no reality; only the unique particular is real. According to Diṅnāga, there is no need to assume the existence of real universals like “cowness” which is nothing but a class concept of the general term “cow”. He argues that we have no requirement of any real universal, because it has no ability to identify or to express any particular entity. According to him, word as a linguistic sign cannot refer to the real object; it can only refer to the negation of others (anyāpoha). Diṅnāga’s conception of anyāpoha is a possible substitute for universal (jāti or sāmānya) of other realist school of Indian logic. The term “sākṣādvṛtti” is directly applicable to the universal which, in other words, is known as  anyāpoha or negation of other. The term anyāpoha means negation of others or negation of contrary or exclusion of others (i.e. the double negation or the joint negation). Though Diṅnāga claims that the general term does not denote its particular as its own referent, yet, for alternative suggestion, he offers that a word denotes its own referent by the exclusion of others.

Keywords: Nominalism, exclusion of others (anyāpoha), linguistic sign, import of words, conceptual construction, reality

Life as a ‘Brief Candle’ blown out by Death: A Critical Analysis of Mahesh Dattani’s Brief Candle

Tapashree Ghosh

Assistant Professor, Dhruba Chand Halder College. ORCID: 0000-0002-4107-8045.

Email id: tapashree.ghosh.deb@gmail.com

 Volume VII, Number 2, 2017 I Full Text PDF

DOI: 10.25274/bcjms.v7n2.v7n2eng01


Mahesh Dattani’s Brief Candle deals with the life of cancer patients and is set in a hospital where cancer patients are about to stage a comic play to raise fund for their hospice. The play-within-the-play is a farce containing explicit sexual overtones, jokes and funny dialogues. In using the play-within-the-play technique Dattani is following a Shakespearean tradition. The research paper makes an in-depth thematic study of the play and analyses the philosophy of life that emerges from the play. Death is the predominant theme of Brief Candle. Faced with the fear of oblivion, Vikas, an AIDS patient who dies of cancer, realises the philosophy of life and rightful living and he spreads his understanding of life to everyone onstage and offstage. Every moment lived with enthusiasm, vitality and mirth is every moment denied death.

Keywords: Death, cancer, fear, life, laughter

Self, Performance and Queer militancy in Isherwood’s A Single Man

Rajorshi Das

Indraprastha College for Women, Delhi

 Volume VII, Number 2, 2017 I Full Text PDF

DOI: 10.25274/bcjms.v7n2.v7n2eng01


Set in 1962 United States, Christopher Isherwood’s A Single Man (1964), initially conceptualised as An English Woman, is considered to be the author’s magnum opus. It focuses on a day in the life of the protagonist, George – a Los Angeles professor who struggles to cope up with the bereavement of his male partner and finds himself in a state of perpetual exile. While the trope of loneliness (central to many queer writings) is integral to the understanding of the protagonist’s psyche, I argue that it is the Modernist “ethos of impersonality” (Gonzalez 758)[i] that allows us to explore the notions of minority consciousness[ii] and gay identity politics in contemporary times.

Keywords: Christopher Isherwood, A Single Man, queer, performance, queer militancy

[i] Gonzalez (2013) in fact argues that the novel is a celebration of identity politics as a primary “weapon of literary-cultural gay activism” (758).

[ii] Claude Summers (2007) identifies this as the central concern of the novel

তিতাস একটি নদীর নাম’ : ব্যক্তিজীবন বনাম গোষ্ঠীজীবনের প্রত্যাশা ও প্রাপ্তির দ্বন্দ্ব

চন্দন কুমার সাউ

Ph.D Research scholar, Burdwan University. Email: chandanshow2015@gmail.com

 Volume VII, Number 2, 2017 I Full Text PDF

DOI: 10.25274/bcjms.v7n2.v7n2bnl01


বাংলা সাহিত্যে কোন একটি বিশেষ জনগোষ্ঠীর জীবন নিয়ে লেখা উপন্যাসের সংখ্যা কম নয়। আর সেই ধারায় অদ্বৈত মল্লবর্মণের ‘তিতাস একটি নদীর নাম’ উপন্যাসটির কথা বিশেষভবেই উল্লেখের দাবি রাখে। তিতাস নদী থেকে মাছ ধরে জীবিকা নির্বাহ করা একদল জেলে-সম্প্রদায়ের(মালো সমাজ) জীবন নিয়ে উপন্যাসটি লিখেছেন ঔপন্যাসিক। মালোদের জীবনের এক সামগ্রিক চালচিত্রই তুলে ধরা হয়েছে এই উপন্যাসে। প্রতিটি মালো নরনারীর ব্যক্তিগত জীবন, তাদের গোষ্ঠী-জীবনের নিজস্ব সংস্কৃতি ও ঐতিহ্য এবং তিতাসের উপর নির্ভরশীল মালোদের জীবন ও জীবিকার পুঙ্খানুপুঙ্খ পরিচয়ই ধরা পড়েছে উপন্যাসটির মধ্যে। আর মালোদের জীবনকথা এই উপন্যাসটির নিবিড় পাঠ নিলে আমরা সমগ্র উপন্যাসের মধ্যে একটা বিষণ্ণতার ছোঁয়া তথা একটা ট্র্যাজিক সুর ফুটে উঠতে দেখি।যার মূলে রয়েছে জীবনের প্রত্যাশা ও প্রাপ্তির  চিরকালীন দ্বন্দ্ব। আমাদের গবেষণার বিষয়ই হল, অদ্বৈত মল্লবর্মণের ‘তিতাস একটি নদীর নাম’ উপন্যাসে কিভাবে জীবনের এই প্রত্যাশা ও প্রাপ্তির দ্বান্দ্বিক রূপটি ধরা পড়েছে, সেটির উপর আলোকপাত করা।এক্ষেত্রে বিষয়টিকে আমরা দুদিক থেকে দেখাবার চেষ্টা করব—–

(ক) প্রতিটি মালো নরনারীর ব্যক্তিগত জীবন প্রসঙ্গে এই প্রত্যাশা-প্রাপ্তির দ্বন্দ্বের ক্ষেত্রটি।

(খ) আঞ্চলিক উপন্যাস হিসাবে একটি জনগোষ্ঠীর নিজস্ব সংস্কৃতি ও জীবিকার সংকটকে ঘিরে গোষ্ঠীজীবনের ক্ষেত্রে এই প্রত্যাশা-প্রাপ্তির দ্বান্দ্বিক রূপটি।

সূচক শব্দঃ অদ্বৈত মল্লবর্মণ, তিতাস একটি নদীর নাম, প্রত্যাশা ও প্রাপ্তির দ্বন্দ্ব,ব্যক্তিজীবন, গোষ্ঠীজীবন

Interrelation of the American Bank Terminology with Other Terminological Systems

Victoria Alexandrovna Levina

National Research University Higher School of Economics, 101000, Russia, Moscow, Myasnitskaya St., 20

 Volume VII, Number 2, 2017 I Full Text PDF

DOI: 10.25274/bcjms.v7n2.v7n2mc01


The article describes the American bank terminology in terms of its structure. Areas of the associated spheres, with their terms being a part of the terminological system periphery, are distinguished. The attempt to define the relation and percent composition of terms from the areas under research in the bank terminology is made. The diachronic aspect of forming the terminological system is taken into account, and basic stages of its development are described. The goal of the research is to reveal the relation of special bank terminology with other term systems for further defining the strategy of studying and fixing terminological units in this area of knowledge.

Keywords: term, terminological system, nucleus of the terminological system, periphery of the terminological system, discourse analysis.

Social Exclusion and the Empowerment of Muslims: A study of Uttar Pradesh

Farhan Abedi

Research Scholar, Department of Sociology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh. Email: farhanabedi.amu@gmail.com

 Volume VII, Number 2, 2017 I Full Text PDF

DOI: 10.25274/bcjms.v7n2.v7n2sc02


Social exclusion broadly refers to lack of participation in social life. It is a powerful form of discriminatory practice. In course of human development, exclusion has taken the form of segregating a group of people from the social, political, economic, cultural, educational domains of societal life. Giddens defines social exclusion as “it is not about gradations of inequality, but about mechanism that act to detach groups of people from the social mainstream”. Muslim in India remains far below the national average in almost all aspect of life. Sacchar committee estimates that the situation of Muslims in India is that of a deprived community which is above that of SCs and STs but below that of Hindu general, Hindu OBCs and other socio-religious category in almost all indicators of development. The due representation of Muslims in parliament, state legislature and Panchayati raj institution is crucial for the country because this is the only way in which this excluded community can keep pace with other communities in development. Other scholars estimate that the situation of Muslims in India is that of an excluded community in economic, educational and political terms. This paper examines the literature on Muslim exclusion in India and suggests some measures for formulating an inclusion policy for them.

Keywords: Exclusion, Development, Muslim Empowerment.

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Teacher Motivation and Perception of Effectiveness of Curriculum

Namita Kumari1 & Fr. Thomas Perumalil S.J.2

1Mother’s International Teacher’s Training Academy, Phulwarisharif, Patna.

Email: namita.educ@gmail.com

2Xavier College of Education, Digha, Patna

 Volume VII, Number 2, 2017 I Full Text PDF

DOI: 10.25274/bcjms.v7n2.v7n2sc01


Teacher motivation is a point of concern for educationists, education planners and school managers. There are several theories dealing with teacher motivation from different viewpoints. The present paper is a short survey concerning the kind of opinion that motivated teachers have regarding the effectiveness of curriculum. The survey was conducted in a private CBSE-based school of Patna. The survey showed a medium positive correlation of 0.35 between teacher motivation and teachers’ perception of effectiveness of curriculum. This implies that while it is true that motivated teachers in general have a positive opinion about their curriculum being effective, it is not so always. A small number are not very confident. This might be because they might be looking towards further possible improvements.

Keywords: Teacher Motivation, Teacher’s Perception of Curriculum

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