Extolling Equality: Construction of Justice in “The Gilded Six Bits” by Zora Neal Hurston

Navid Salehi Babamiri

Independent Researcher, Saqqez city, Iran. Email: navid_salehi1988@yahoo.com

Volume VII, Number 1, 2017 I Full Text PDF

DOI: 10.25274/bcjms.v7n1.en-v7-01-06


The masculine word or the so called “patriarchy” was a term that mostly in black culture, literature and folklore has had its most negative, undesirable and traumatic effect on a poor black woman. It is also a kind of belief that is used by narrow-minded men especially black ones to show that black women are inferior to men both rationally and physically. This evil thought leads to the ruthless behavior that black men want to compel their wives to comply them for whatever they want, however, the black women have not stopped but have acquired their ability to hamper and impair these negative power relations. Zora Neal Hurston’s short story “The Six Gilded Bits” is a good sample that signifies the author’s response to this devastated culture.  In this short story, she firstly tries to depict the horrible situation that a black woman has to tackle, and secondly, she makes it flexible for the reader, even the black men with their strict power in their hands, to understand their wives better and take actions with them to balance the power and revise the harsh term “patriarchy” to reconciliation and love. Therefore, this article, regarding the short story, tries to estimate the symbolic boundaries in which black women live in a society that they suffer from sexism, racism, and material disinheritance and, at the same time, it contributes to black women’s attempt to develop the process of liberation from these constraints which have been imposed on them for long.

Keywords: patriarchy, masculinity, femininity, equality, love.

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করুণা-হত্যা (Euthanasia): আইনী স্বীকৃতির প্রয়োজনীয়তা

অধ্যাপক অরবিন্দ পাল
দর্শন বিভাগ, ভট্টর কলেজ, দাঁতন

 Volume VII, Number 1, 2017 I Full Text PDF

Article DOI: 10.25274/bcjms.v7n1.bn-v7-01-02

সংক্ষিপ্তসার (Abstract): আত্মহত্যার ন্যায় করুণা-হত্যা (Euthanasia)ও একটি বহু-বিতর্কিত বিষয় । পিটার সিঙ্গার থেকে শুরু করে জেমস র্যালচেলস, ফিলিপ্‌পা ফুট প্রমুখ প্রথম সারির বহু নীতি দার্শনিক “ইচ্ছা মৃত্যু” সম্পর্কে বহু আলোচনা করেছেন । Euthanasia বা ইচ্ছামৃত্যুর সজ্ঞায় Marvin Kohl বলেন, “The painless inducement of a quick death” । ‘Euthanasia’ শব্দটি গ্রীক শব্দ ‘Euthanatos’ থেকে এসেছে। গ্রীক শব্দ ‘Eu’ এর অর্থ হল Well বা Good অর্থাৎ ভালো, আর ‘Euthanatos’ শব্দের অর্থ হল ‘Death’ অর্থাৎ মৃত্যু। সুতরাং গ্রীক ‘Euthanatos’ শব্দের অর্থ হল ‘Good Death’ অর্থাৎ শান্তি মৃত্যু বা ‘স্বস্তিমৃত্যু’। Euthanasia শব্দটির আভিধানিক অর্থ হল, ‘করুণা হত্যা’ বা ‘সৌজন্য-হত্যা’, যে হত্যায় মৃত্যুকাঙ্খী ব্যাক্তির মৃত্যুটি হয় শান্তিপূর্ণ । শান্ত ও সহজ মৃত্যু বা স্বস্তিমৃত্যুই (Mercy Killing) হল করুণা-হত্যা (Euthanasia) । অনারোগ্য ব্যাধির অশেষ যন্ত্রণা থেকে মুক্ত করার জন্য সহজ ও শান্তভাবে জীবনের অবসান ঘটানো (a gentle and easy death) হল কাঙ্ক্ষিত হত্যাজনিত মৃত্যু (When death is desired) । করুণা-হত্যার প্রধান তিনটি প্রকার হল – (১) ঐচ্ছিক করুণা-হত্যা (Voluntary Euthanasia) (২) অনৈচ্ছিক করুণা-হত্যা (Non-Voluntary Euthanasia) এবং (৩) ইচ্ছাবিরোধী করুণা-হত্যা (Involuntary Euthanasia) । করুণা-হত্যা দুইভাবে হতে পারে – (১) নিশ্চেষ্ট (Passive) এবং সচেষ্ট (active euthanasia) । মৃত্যু পথযাত্রীর চিকিৎসা বন্ধ করে চিকিৎসক তার মৃত্যুকে ত্বরান্বিত করলে হয় নিশ্চেষ্ট করুণা-হত্যা । আর প্রাণঘাতী ওষুধ প্রয়োগ করে চিকিৎসক মৃত্যু পথযাত্রীর তাৎক্ষণিক মৃত্যু ঘটালে তা হয় সচেষ্ট করুণা-হত্যা । নেদারল্যান্ডস্‌ ছাড়া অন্য কোন দেশে এ যাবৎ সচেষ্টকরুণা-হত্যা আইনসম্মতরূপে গ্রাহ্য হয়নি। সাধারণত ‘Euthanasia’ বলতে অনারোগ্য (incurable) ব্যাধিতে জর্জরিত এবং অসহ্য যন্ত্রণাক্লিষ্ট মরণেচ্ছু মানুষকে দয়া দেখিয়ে সহজ ও শান্তিতে যাতনাহীন স্বচ্ছন্দ মৃত্যু ঘটিয়ে দেওয়া বোঝায়। যাতনাহীন স্বচ্ছন্দ মৃত্যু বা করুণা হত্যা ঘটানোর ব্যাপারটা ‘Euthanasia’র একটি দিক মাত্র। সেই সঙ্গে এটাও লক্ষ্য রাখতে হবে যে অনারোগ্য যন্ত্রণাক্লিষ্ট মরণেচ্ছু হতভাগ্য মানুষটি মরে বাঁচছে কিনা। অর্থাৎ মৃত্যু তার কাছে আশীর্বাদ হয়ে এসেছে কিনা।
Keywords: Voluntary Euthanasia, Non-Voluntary Euthanasia, active euthanasia, Mercy Killing

The time-dependent discrete variable representation (TDDVR) method to the quantum dynamics on ethylene (C2H4+)

Dr. Subhankar Sardar

Department of Chemistry, Bhatter College, Dantan, Paschim Medinipur, West Bengal, India

 Volume VII, Number 1, 2017 I Full Text PDF

Article DOI: 10.25274/bcjms.v7n1.psc-v7-01-01


The molecular dynamics of ethylene radical cation (C2H4+) is investigated after excitation from the ground state (X2B2u) to the first excited electronic state (A2B2g) by using the time-dependent discrete variable representation (TDDVR) method. The investigation is being carried out with a realistic 3-mode model Hamiltonian of C2H4+ molecule. We perform dynamics on the model Hamiltonian consisting most important three vibrational modes to calculate the spectral profile of C2H4+ by using TDDVR approach. The TDDVR calculated ultraviolet photoelectron (PE) spectra shows reasonably good agreement with a previous theoretical and the experimental results. It is now established that the TDDVR approach for those molecular systems where quantum mechanical description is needed in a restricted region, is a good compromise between accuracy and speed.

Keywords: Quantum Dynamics, Time Dependent Discrete Variable Representation method, Ethylene

Importance of Astanga-yoga for the Attainment of Liberation in Other Systems of Indian Philosophy

Sukanta Das, PhD

Govt. Approved Part-time teacher, Department of Philosophy, Garhbeta College, Garhbeta, Midnapur (west), West Bengal. Email: das.sukanta007@gmail.com

 Volume VII, Number 1, 2017 I Full Text PDF

Article DOI: 10.25274/bcjms.v7n1.sc-en-v7-01-02


We know that Indian Philosophy leads us to the way of attaining liberation. It is true that only moka or liberation is eternal among four puruārthas by which men can be free from all kinds of sufferings, pains etc. of life permanently.  The term ‘moka’ is used in different terms in various systems of Indian Philosophy viz. ‘nirvāa’, ‘kaivalya’, ‘apavarga’, ‘mukti’, ‘niśreyasa’, ‘Brahmasvarūpatāprāpti’ etc. But, it is also true that all the systems except the Cārvāka admit liberation as the chief goal to every human being and for attaining it they have mentioned various methods as the means in their theories but if we search profoundly their prescribe methods, must find the method of yoga or some parts of yoga (of aga-yoga) as potential form using in different terms. Hence, it may be observed here that the aga-yoga is not only effective method as means for attaining liberation in the Yoga Philosophy but also effective method in other systems of Indian Philosophy also. The aim of this paper is to show how the aga-yoga has been admitted as the means for the attainment of liberation in some other systems of Indian Philosophy.

Keywords: Liberation, Aga-yoga, nirvā, apavarga, kaivalya, Brahman.

Physical Fitness and Performance Indicators of Indian Female Volleyball Players: the Need for individual Data

Dr. Krishnendu Pradhan
Assistant Professor, Department of Physical Education, Garhbeta College, Paschim Medinipur, West Bengal, E-Mail: kpgcpe@gmail.com.

 Volume VII, Number 1, 2017 I Full Text PDF

DOI: 10.25274/bcjms.v7n1.ped-en-v7-01-01 


The performances of Indian female volleyball teams (mini to senior levels) are poor at the Asian as well as in the international levels. This has become a challenge to the volleyball coaches, physical educationists and sports scientists of India. Though efforts are being made to improve the performance of Indian female volleyball players of different levels however, very little success has been achieved so far in this regard due to fact that in India the emphasis during selection of teams in different levels has been based on only in skills and tactics without much consideration of physical fitness and performance indicators of volleyball players. In this respect the researcher realizes the importance of physical fitness and performance indicators in the game of volleyball and undertaken this topic.

The present study was aimed to assess the physical fitness indicators i.e. strength, speed, power, agility, flexibility and muscular endurance and the performance indicators i.e. height, weight, grip strength (left + right), back strength, block jump and spike jump of Indian talented sub-junior female volleyball players and to compare the results with age matched Control Group.  Also, compare the findings of the Indian talented sub-junior female volleyball players with that of their international standards from available literatures and to make some suggestions for the improvement of their performance level in international standard. The study was carried out in twenty (20) Indian talented sub-junior female volleyball players aged between 13 to 16 years and twenty (20) ages matched female Control Group. Physical fitness indicators of volleyball game namely strength, speed, power, agility, flexibility, muscular endurance and performance indicators namely height, weight, grip strength (left + right), back strength, block jump and spike jump were measured by their respective standard tests. Data was analyzed using Independent Sample‘t’ test by using SPSS, (Version 20.0) software. The level of significance chosen was 0.05.

The results of t-test revealed that all physical fitness and performance indicators of Indian talented sub-junior female volleyball players were statistically significant in compared to their age matched Control Group but when values of the each physical fitness and performance indicators were compared to the international standards, the Indian talented sub-junior female volleyball players were behind the recommended norms for the elite international female sub-junior volleyball players. The Indian sub-junior female volleyball players have more advantages in strength, speed, power, agility, flexibility, muscular endurance, height, weight, grip strength (left + right), back strength, block jump and spike jump of physical fitness and performance indicators respectively in compared to their age matched Control Group.

 Keywords: Physical Fitness, Performance indicators, strength, speed, power, agility, flexibility, muscular endurance, grip strength, back strength, block jump, spike jump.

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Mapping History in Fiction through Orality in Mahasweta Devi’s The Armeniun Champa Tree

Quleen Kaur Bijral1 & Vandana Sharma2

1Research Scholar, Department of Languages and  Literature, Shri Mata Vaishno Devi University, Katra, J&K. Email: quleen.kaur@gmail.com

2Head, Literature, Shri Mata Vaishno Devi University, Katra, J&K

  Volume VII, Number 1, 2017 I Full Text PDF

DOI: 10.25274/bcjms.v7n1.en-v7-01-05


The paper establishes how the novel The Armeniun Champa Tree attacks the cemented belief that fiction is in direct contradiction to history, as it is apparently a harbinger of falsehood. In rewriting and refocusing history from the vantage of the subaltern, the paper also highlights Mahasweta Devi’s endevour to assert the importance of Orality and to sensitize the masses about the marginalized sections of the society with special reference to aboriginals. The paper, consequently, ascertains the power of oral sources, the need to signify the importance of literature vis-a-vis history, Devi as a subaltern historian and how she attempts to seek the voice of the subaltern.

 KEYWORDS: Mahasweta Devi, Subaltern, orality, aboriginals, history

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Still Hoping for Reconciliation: Reading Alexis Wright’s Carpentaria as a Critique of Reconciliation

Virender Pal

University College, Kurukshetra University Kurukshetra, Haryana. India. Email: p2vicky@gmail.com

 Volume VII, Number 1, 2017 I Full Text PDF

DOI: 10.25274/bcjms.v7n1.en-v7-01-04


Australian government started the policy of reconciliation in 1991. The Aborigines were very optimistic about the policy in the beginning. The optimism is evident in Alexis Wright’s Plains of Promise, but in her second novel Carpentaria; she revises her point of view and she demonstrates the reconciliation has made no difference in the lives of the Aborigines. The novel demonstrates that racism is still strong in the small towns like Desperance, the town described in the novel. The novel also shows that the Aboriginal culture faces the most important threat in the era of reconciliation. In the novel, Wright makes it clear that the Aborigines are trying to reconcile with the oppressive white Australian policies, but the whites are still hesitant in giving human status to the Aborigines. The minds of the whites are still frozen in the assimilation era where the Aborigines were supposed to acquire the etiquettes of the whites. The Aborigines are still the worst sufferers of white racist policies. The novel makes it clear that reconciliation has become an oppressor centred policy rather than an oppressive centred one.

 Key Words: Alexis Wright, reconciliation, racism, culture

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Beneficiaries of Foreign Direct Investment in Organised Food Retailing in India

Itisha Rohatgi

Research Scholar, IFTM University Moradabad. Email: itisharohatgi@yahoo.co.in

 Volume VII, Number 1, 2017 I Full Text PDF

DOI: 10.25274/bcjms.v7n1.mc-en-v7-01-02


The organised food retail in India is fast growing. The government’s decision to permit foreign direct investment in single-brand and multi-brand retail has given an impetus to it furthermore. On one hand, it is claimed that the foreign investment would be beneficial for all the stakeholders – farmers, consumers, domestic organised retailers, local traders, government and manufacturers while on the other hand few economic experts have certain apprehensions regarding the policy that it would lead to monopolistic practices, large-scale exit of small retailers, predatory pricing and rise of real estate cost. The present paper intends to examine the condition of the various stakeholders – farmers, consumers, domestic organised retailers, local traders, government and real estate sector; in the wake of introduction of foreign direct investment in the retail sector and provide suitable policy suggestions in the interests of the same.

Keywords: Foreign direct investment, multi-brand retail, organised food retail, single-brand retail, stakeholders.

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Study on effects of shopping orientation on the consumers buying online in Punjab

Pankaj Jain1 & Dr. Gautam Bansal2

1Research Scholar I.K. Gujral Punjab Technical University. Email: pankaj_jain88@ymail.com          

2Dean, Department of Commerce (PCTE). Email: gautam@pcte.edu.in

 Volume VII, Number 1, 2017 I Full Text PDF

DOI: 10.25274/bcjms.v7n1.mc-en-v7-01-01


Buying something online 15 years back seemed something very difficult for an Indian Consumer but  development of the World Wide Web has resulted in the creation of a new form of business i.e. electronic retailing (e-tailing) or web-shopping. Consumers these days are buying all the stuff from personal grooming to Groceries, apparels, mobile phones etc online. Thus, customers’ involvements in online purchasing have become an important trend. As such, it is vital to identify the determinants of the customer online purchase intention. The aim of this research is to evaluate the impacts of shopping orientations on the customer online purchase intention. A total of 523 respondents were asked questions on their shopping orientations and their products purchase. Efforts were put in to explore the linkage between their shopping orientation and the products they purchased. The findings revealed that impulse purchase intention, quality orientation, brand orientation, online trust and prior online purchase experience were positively related to the customer online purchase intention.

Keywords: Shopping Orientation, online purchase intention.