Evolutionary Paradigm Shift in the Instructional Strategies of Chemical Concepts

Sibananda Sana1,  Chandan Adhikary2 & K.N. Chattopadhyay3

1Department of Chemistry, Government Training College, Hooghly-712103, West Bengal, India

2Department of Chemistry, Institute of Education (P.G.) For Women, Chandernagore, Hooghly-712138, West Bengal, India

3Department of Education, The University of Burdwan, Golapbag, Burdwan-713104, West Bengal, India. Email: knc_bu@yahoo.co.in

    Volume 8, Number 1, 2018 I Full Text PDF

Abstract

The ‘triplet’ design of the chemical concepts comprising macro, sub-micro and symbolic dimensions are the backbone of chemistry. The disciplinary evolution of chemistry as an independent discipline from chemical myths and magic to today’s chemistry had brought a radical changes in all aspects pertaining to theories, practices and applications. The newly evolved chemical concepts and technological growth in education greatly influenced the instructional strategies in a paradigm way from ancient traditional ‘chalk and talk’ instructional method to the current multimedia mediated teaching learning processes. In this article we are to analyze how these radical changes in the instructional strategies of the chemical concepts help to comprehend abstract chemical thoughts meaningfully.

Keywords: Chemical concepts, Triplet design, Macro, Sub-micro and Symbolic dimensions, Transformation of instructional strategies.

Governance and Management of Higher Education in India: an Overview

Dr. Niladri Pradhan

Department of Education, Malda Women’s College, Malda-732101, West Bengal. Email: pradhanniladri.mwc@gmail.com

    Volume 8, Number 1, 2018 I Full Text PDF

Abstract

India has one of the largest higher education systems in the world, and in terms of number of students enrolled, it is the second highest after China. In its size and diversity, India has the third largest higher education system in the world, next only to China and the United States. Before Independence, access to higher education was very limited and elitist, with enrolment of less than 0.2 million students in 500 colleges and 20 universities. Today, Indian higher education is comprised of 819 universities, 40,026 colleges, 91 institute of national importance and 11, 669 stand-alone institutes with enrolment of about 35.7 million students including 19 million boys & 16.07 million girls (AISHE, 2016-17). The structure, nature, features of degree and non-degree granting higher education institutes in India have been discussed in the first part of this paper. On the other hand the author has also highlighted the present scenario of Indian higher education in terms of multi-layered regulatory councils, plan and policy making bodies. Moreover the author has identified some of the strategic strides and pragmatic steps to overcome the above mentioned problems in higher education and make policy recommendations for implementations.

Keywords: Higher Education, management, governance

বন থেকে সমাজঃ জন্তু থেকে মানুষের বিবর্তনযাত্রা

অধ্যাপক অরবিন্দ পাল, ভট্টর কলেজ, দাঁতন, দর্শন বিভাগ

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জন্তুর কেবল জীববৃত্তি আছে আর মানুষের জীববৃত্তি এবং বুদ্ধিবৃত্তি উভয়ই বর্তমান। ব্যাপক অর্থে ‘মানুষ’ বলতে সাধারণত বোঝায় ‘মনুষ্য – জাতির (Homo – Sapiens) অন্তর্গত কোন সভ্য বা ব্যক্তি’। কোন সভ্য যে মনুষ্য জাতির অন্তর্গত তা জানা যায় তার দেহ – কোষ, দেহ – কোষের অন্তর্গত ক্রোমোজোম্ পরীক্ষা করে। ‘মানুষ’ শব্দটিকে ব্যাপক অর্থে প্রয়োগ না করে কিছুটা সীমিত অর্থে প্রয়োগ করে ধর্মতত্ত্ববিদ এবং নীতিবিদ জোসেফ্ ফ্লেচার (Joseph Fletcher)মানুষের অর্থাৎ মনু্ষ্যত্বের কয়েকটি লক্ষণের উল্লেখ করেছেন। যেমন, আত্ম–সচেতনতা, আত্ম–সংযম, ভবিষ্যত–দর্শিতা, অতীত–বোধ, বিষয়বস্তুর মধ্যে সম্বন্ধ স্থাপন সামর্থ, পরচিন্তা, আদান – প্রদান সামর্থ এবং কৌতূহল। ফ্লেচার এর মতে, এইসব বৈশিষ্ট্য থাকলে তবেই কোন ব্যক্তিকে ‘মানুষ’ এবং তার জীবনকে ‘মনুষ্য জীবন’ বলা যাবে। জীব বিদ্যাসম্মত ‘মানুষ; শব্দের প্রথম অর্থটিকে অধ্যাপক পিটার সিঙ্গার বলেছেন, ‘মানুষ জাতির অন্তর্গত সভ্য’ আর দ্বিতীয় অর্থটিকে বলেছেন, ‘ব্যক্তিত্বের লক্ষণযুক্ত ব্যক্তি’। ‘ব্যক্তিত্বের লক্ষণ হল, আত্ম–সচেতনতা ও বিচার সামর্থ। তাহলে ‘ব্যক্তি’ বলতে বোঝায় এমন জীব যে আত্ম – সচেতন, বিচারশীল। ফ্লেচার ও ‘মানুষ’ শব্দটির অনুরূপ অর্থ করেছেন এবং অ্যারিস্টটল, জন্ লক্ প্রভৃতি প্রখ্যাত দার্শনিকগণও ‘মানুষ’ শব্দটিকে অনুরূপ অর্থে গ্রহন করেছেন। ‘মানুষ’ শব্দটির সংজ্ঞায় অ্যারিস্টটল বলেছেন, ‘বিচারশীল জীব’। জীব থেকে বিচারশীল জীবে পরিনত হতে সময় লেগেছে প্রায় ২০০ কোটি বছর।

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